State studs –
Preservation of "living cultural assets"!
The exhibition offers me the opportunity to talk about my way of photographing horses and that there is more to it thanonly beautiful horse pictures - pictures are also contemporary documents and preserve tradition and history.
The horse is to be regarded as a significant, living cultural asset. And the state studs as important institutions that need to be preserved so that they can continue to cultivate culture and tradition in the breeding of different horse breeds. In my lecture I would like to show in pictures and words how essential horses and their history are in our lives and how important it is to capture this in pictures.
Main and State Stud Marbach
The main and state stud in Marbach is the oldest state stud in Germany. The first written mention is verifiable in 1514 during the reign of Duke Ulrich. With over 500 horses and the oldest documented Arabian breed in the world, it has a very special meaning for horse lovers. In addition to the impressive horse breeding, the care and maintenance of the cultural asset horse is an essential task for the tradition-rooted stud farm on the Swabian Alb.
Even before you enter the Marbach State Stud, the golden emblem on the heavy iron gate shows where you are. A curved "M" with the stag's horn is the Marbach brand. This seal of quality is on the right hindquarters of every warmblood horse born in Marbach.
Beautiful buildings from different eras and architectural styles surround the spacious courtyard. The emblem of the stud farm is also located here. The so-called "Mare Fountain" from 1844 shows a mare with her suckling foal on the fountain column. Over the course of several centuries, buildings and stables were gradually built on the extensive hilly grounds of the stud farm. Most recently, the modern riding hall with seating for 1,500 visitors and an open-air arena with up to 10,000 seats were added.
The spacious facility in Marbach includes stables, riding halls, barns and garages, a total of 18 buildings. The older fillies are housed about 15 km away in the buildings of the former Cistercian monastery in Güterstein. The history of these buildings in the typical Black Forest house style goes back to the 12th century. The former Dominican convent Maria Gnadenzell on the stud farm in St. Johann also belongs to the main and state stud farm. The Gothic church dates from the 13th century and now houses the Stud Museum. The EU insemination station is also located in St. Johann.
In the mid-18th century, the extravagant Duke Karl Eugen used Holsteins and Oldenburgs as well as thoroughbred breeding horses of Hungarian and Neapolitan descent. Around 1770, the stud owned more than 700 horses, most of which were unsuitable for farming. When King Wilhelm I took office in 1816, horse breeding was reorganized and the court stud and state horse breeding were separated. In 1817 Marbach was raised to the status of state stud and was assigned the stud farms of Offenhausen, St. Johann and Güterstein. With the stud regulations, the first German licensing regulations for stud and private stallions were created and strict breeding selection was declared the goal.
With the determination of a type of horse suitable for the military and agriculture, breeding horses from East Prussia, among other things, were acquired. In combination with Anglo-Normans, including Faust, the founder of the line, the Württemberg Warmblood horse was created, which largely corresponded to the breeding goal around 1900 in terms of size and type.
After the Second World War, the formerly beneficial influence of the East Prussian horse was remembered and a Trakehner with resounding inheritance was used with Golddollar. The former Georgenburg state stud stallion Julmond turned out to be a direct hit. Today, stallions of the breeds German riding horse, Black Forest and southern German cold blood and thoroughbred Arabian are in the Marbach stud stalls. Since 1860 there has been a continuous studbook of the lines bred.
Between 1814 and 1819, King Wilhelm I acquired a number of stallions and mares from the Orient and thus laid the foundation for his thoroughbred Arabian - private stud Weil near Esslingen. The stud farm became famous but had to be sold in 1932 for economic reasons. The largest part of the herd was taken over by the state of Baden-Württemberg and given a new home in Marbach. Breeding could be maintained with a lot of commitment.
The stallion Hadban Enzahi was style-defining for the Arabian breed of the stud, he became a legend and shaped not only the Marbacher, but also the German and international Arabian breeding like no other.
Another special feature of the Swabian Alb are the Black Forest foxes, an old draft horse breed. The imposing horses with lush blond manes and tails are among the visitor's favourites. The breeding of this breed, which had almost died out in the post-war period, was saved by providing stallions in Marbach. It is thanks to the Marbach Stud that this breed, which is rare today, was activated and cared for with first-class stallions.
The training of riders and horses is very important. More than 600 riding and driving students attend the state riding and driving school of the stud every year. Driving courses and international sporting events such as jumping and dressage tournaments are held. The best eventing riders in the world praise the wonderful natural obstacles on the Marbach terrain. The annual stallion parade is an internationally renowned attraction in Marbach. The main and state stud in Marbach not only presents stallions and mares of different breeds, but also shows the many possible uses of the horse as a sport and leisure companion.
When the trained farmer and PhD agricultural scientist Dr. Astrid von Velsen-Zerweck, the first woman to officially take over the management of Dr. Helmut Gebhardt takes over the management of the impressive state stud with over 500 horses, 90 permanent employees and 37 trainees in autumn, she is faced with an exciting task.
In addition to continuing the proven tradition of horse breeding and keeping, modernization of the external appearance of the stud farm, but also the expansion of modern scientific methods, for example in the biotechnology sector, are among their projects.
In Marbach, great importance is attached to the species-appropriate husbandry of the animals that live in large herds in the wild. Outdoors on wide pastures, indoors in spacious loose pens, where the Warmblood horses spend the night, they are offered almost natural conditions.
Marbach is more than just one of the most important stud farms in Germany.
Main and State Stud
The beautiful Ruppiner Land and the Prignitz with their unique avenues, forests and meadows represent something very special in Brandenburg, because in the Prignitz horses, nature and people have formed an inseparable ensemble for more than 200 years.
Right in the middle is the picturesque Brandenburg Main and State Stud in Neustadt (Dosse). After many years of renovation work, it now shines in new splendor. After the reunification, the continued existence of the former royal stud farm was in bad shape. Only the personal commitment of many dedicated horse people and the tireless work of the long-standing stud staff and the focus of today's managing director Dr. We have Jürgen Müller to thank for the revival of the stud, which looks back on a long history:
In 1662, Frederick II of Hesse Homburg had the swamp areas around the city, which were criss-crossed by many branches of the Dosse, drained and turned into meadows. Soon he was selling horses to the electoral cavalry, which was extremely lucrative. In 1694, Neustadt and the surrounding area became the property of Elector Friedrich III, later King Friedrich I, and thus fell to Brandenburg. The kennel became a court stud farm.
However, the extremely thrifty soldier king Frederick William I thought it made more financial sense to breed mules instead of horses for the army, and so did his son, Frederick the Great. His successor, Friedrich Wilhelm II (reigned 1786 –1794), loved everything that was beautiful - including noble horses, which he could not find in Prussia. His young adjutant, Carl Graf von Lindenau, a cavalry officer and son of a Saxon head stable master, inspired the king with the idea of establishing regular stud farms in order to cultivate the previously unattractive native horse breeding with first-class stallions. In March 1788, the War and Domain Council of Prussia decreed that a breeding facility with the name »Friedrich-Wilhelm« should be built. Shortly thereafter, the Saxon building inspector Glasewald began to build today's main stud for about 60 mares and one kilometer away the Kurmärkisches state stud called Lindenau-Hof (today the state stud) for about 100 sires.
Both complexes were created as rectangular courtyards in the classical style. The Brandenburg Main and State Stud with its castle-like Landstallmeisterhaus in the main stud is today considered a gem of Prussian architecture. On the one hand it reflects the splendor of the time, on the other hand it also reflects the practicality of the complexes. The stables were built according to the most modern knowledge, light and well ventilated, floor made of clinker bricks with drainage channels. The studs served to secure and supply the Prussian army with horses and for sales abroad.
A royal order was then introduced for the first time and a uniform branding established - "arrow and snake". In the future, they should mark all horses bred in Neustadt as a sign of speed, cleverness and dexterity. The already mating stallions from Trakehnen, Hanover, Mecklenburg and France were not enough for Count von Lindenau to refine the state breed, which is why he included thirteen Arabian stallions in the breeding program in 1789. With "Mocraby" and "Bayan" they left decisive traces in the Neustadt breeding annals. "Bayan's" best son, "Pretender", was bought by an English horse dealer for a whopping 220 louis dor and later sold to Napoleon Bonaparte for a multiple. Who gave the unusually beautiful young stallion the name "Sanspareille" (unparalleled).
Today the Brandenburg Main and State Stud in Neustadt (Dosse) is a foundation under public law.
As one of the largest main and state studs in Europe, it has the provision of recognized and well-bred stallions as well as the preservation and refinement of local horse breeding as its main tasks. In addition, special attention is paid to the performance tests according to the Animal Welfare Act, the preservation of the valuable cultural and historical heritage and traditions as well as the preservation of the listed stud farms.
On approximately 400 hectares of agricultural land, the main stud farm produces everything it needs to provide for its own herd of mares and to support the stallions of the state stud farm. Thanks to the extensive areas of its own, the stud farm is independent and can also draw on this great potential when holding numerous events. This cultural asset also invites you to charabanc rides, sightseeing or horseback riding.
Training plays an important role at the Brandenburg Main and State Stud. Whether at school in riding or during professional training to become a groom.
Of course, horses are also trained here, whether stallions for ability tests or mares for performance tests. From the foal to the riding/driving horse trained for tournaments, everyone receives the appropriate training.
State championships, riding horse sales days, licensing and performance tests for mares and stallions take place regularly on the grounds of the Brandenburg Main and State Stud in Neustadt (Dosse). Every year in September countless horse lovers visit the popular stallion parade. Every year in autumn, the Hubertus hunt takes place on the expanse of the stud farm in cooperation with the sports association of the German Bundestag. An Advent market also enjoys general popularity every year
The Brandenburg Main and State Stud invites you to specialist or historical tours of the studs and their estates. You can also explore the area by carriage or get to know the interesting surroundings of the kennel better.
Main and State Stud
The Bavarian Main and State Stud Schwaiganger is located in a beautiful mountain area in the Werdenfelser Land near Ohlstadt near Garmisch.
The first government measures for organized horse breeding date back to the 16th century, particularly influenced by Duke Wilhelm IV and Ludwig V, who also made sires available to the monasteries. Later, the Rohrenfeld and Graßling court studs were founded, before Elector Maximilian III. Joseph placed the entire stud administration under state order in 1754 - including the Ansbach main and state stud established in 1730 by the Hohenzollerns. In Gut Schwaiganger, first mentioned in a document in 955 and from 1610 summer pasture of the court stud farm Grassling, the stud farm started around 1769 with around 70 stallions from Holstein, Mecklenburg, East Prussia, France and Hungary. The procedure in Schwaiganger was analogous to that in Celle, where the stallions were available to rural breeders free of charge in the early years.
In some cases, mares were also given to the farmers to promote horse breeding. From 1780 the estate was owned by Duchess Maria Anna, widow of Duke Clemens and sister of Elector Maximilian III, who resided in Schwaiganger for ten years. The main building as a generously proportioned wing and the dance hall date from this period.
The development was checkered from 1808: First an army stud, which was dissolved in 1826, followed in 1840 by the re-establishment of a main stud for warmblood horses, which was transferred to the Achselschwang estate in 1864. Schwaiganger was a remonte depot until 1920 and was then taken over by the Bavarian state and was initially used mainly for cold blood breeding. Bavaria currently has numerous state studs, such as Achielschwang, Eichelscheiderhof-Zweibrücken in the Palatinate, Landshut and Ansbach.
From 1750 onwards, foals from the princely Schleissheim stud farm were raised at the Landshut state stud farm. From 1768 onwards, stallions of the Rohrenfeld court stud farm with predominantly Spanish - Oriental descent stood in the stables of the residence. In 1859 a new stud farm was set up, which from 1870 was primarily occupied by Oldenburg stallions and draft horses, but later also by warmblood and Haflinger stallions. In the mid-1960s, the first warmblood stallions from northern German breeding areas moved into their stalls in Schwaiganger, thereby supplementing the existing stock of draft horses and Haflingers. After the Landshut state stud was closed (1980) and some stallions were taken over, Schwaiganger was given the status of a main and state stud.
Almost all important stallion lines are represented in today's stock of sires, including the R line via Raueck I and his son Rauherr, who is successful in show jumping at advanced level, as well as Rothschild by. Ramiro, who was able to make a name for himself through his son Rautenstein, who, with the full brothers Rivero I and II, produced two young stallions that were highly successful in dressage.
Pilot is represented by two sons and a grandson, Holsteiner bloodstreams of the L and C line currently lead four stallions and as a promising representative of the Abglanz line, the Oldenburg Asti Spumante by Argentinus are considered. In addition to riding horse breeding, draft horses and Haflingers play an important role; currently more than 20 stallions belong to these breeds. In total there are over 400 horses, including an average herd of 40 warmblood mares and around 30 Haflinger and draft horse mares.
Since January 1st, 2004, Schwaiganger has been the teaching, experimental and specialist center for horse husbandry of the Bavarian State Institute for Agriculture. The LVFZ-Schwaiganger, in cooperation with the Institute for Animal Breeding, supports the preservation of these breeds with the conservation breeding of livestock breeds that are severely threatened in their existence. "Rottaler horses", "Murnau-Werdenfelser cattle", "spectacled sheep", "Alpine stone sheep", "black mountain sheep" and "white mountain sheep" are kept at the Guglhör experimental station and in Schwaiganger.
The main task under the direction of Landstallmeister Dr. Eberhard Senckenberg is involved in the breeding and raising of stallions of the Warmblood, Haflinger and South German Coldblood breeds as well as in the provision of stallions for state horse breeding.
The range of services offered by Schwaiganger is therefore correspondingly large and ranges from many horse-related events to driving courses including driving tests to courses on wood moving with horses. Due to the diverse possibilities of the entire facility, tournaments of all kinds can of course be held here in the most beautiful surroundings.
Warendorf State Stud
North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
The North Rhine-Westphalia State Stud can now look back on 180 years of history. It was founded in 1826 at the request of breeders in Westphalia and the Rhine Province, making it the first Prussian state stud farm in the west. After the end of the war, it became the property of the state of North Rhine-Westphalia and is now assigned to the Ministry for the Environment and Nature Conservation, Agriculture and Consumer Protection of the state of North Rhine-Westphalia. In 1816 there were exactly 125,848 horses of various breeds and breeds in Westphalia. Because of the good results in East Prussia, the horse breeders had asked for a state stud farm. The promise came in 1816 - ten years later the state stud farm.
The 13 stallions from East Prussia presented in Warendorf were anything but warmly welcomed by the Westphalian breeders. They wanted stallions whose offspring were strong enough to guarantee the cultivation of the deep soils. There was quite a bit of breeding confusion, especially since the mare base was anything but homogeneous. And so the owners bred what they saw fit. The influence of the state stud was not sufficient, even though in 1878 there were over 100 sires. The lack of "breeding management" meant that in the north of the country the Oldenburg dominated, in the south one relied on draft horses.
In 1904 the Westfälisches Pferdestammbuch was founded and uniform breeding goals were defined, the rights and obligations of the members were determined, stud bookkeeping was regulated, brands were established and performance tests for stallions and mares were encouraged.
The examination system was demanding. State stud stallions competed against private ones and the breeders recognized the need for performance breeding. Of the many breeds that were used, the Hanoverian prevailed.
In 1920, the general assembly of the Westphalian horse stud book decided to only breed on the Hanoverian basis. After the war, the breeding goal was modeled according to the new requirements. A versatile riding and sport horse was sought.
The German Riding School has been affiliated with the Warendorf State Stud since 1968. It offers advanced training and examination courses for professional riders and tournament professionals. Courses and examinations from driving badges to driving instructors are held at the technical college for driving. Around 50 stallions and geldings belong to the teaching horse population of the German Riding School.
The task of the state stud farm has remained basically unchanged since it was founded. It consists of making high-quality and genetically interesting stallions available to horse breeders for a reasonable stud fee. The primary goal is breeding progress. The State Stud maintains 22 mating stations and insemination stations in Westphalia and the Rhineland. All are managed by trained professionals.
Since 1996 the stud farm has been managed by the graduate agricultural engineer Susanne Schmitt-Rimkus. She was the first state stable master in Germany and is the "mistress" of around 100 active breeding stallions. The stud farm has an average stallion stock of 80 warmblood stallions, two thoroughbreds and 17 coldblood stallions. In cold blood breeding, the focus is on the preservation of valuable genes.
Around 70 employees care for and look after the stallions. There are also 20 trainees. The German riding school is affiliated with the stud farm. It is the "Center of Professional Riding" and offers advanced training and examination courses for professional riders, amateurs and tournament professionals. Since not every examinee has his own horse, the school's teaching horse stock includes around 50 stallions and geldings. In total, the State Stud offers space for 160 horses on its eight-hectare site. The mating season lasts from February to August. During this time, some of the stallions are at the 22 mating and insemination stations in Westphalia and the Rhineland. Customers also include breeders from other parts of Germany, from all over Europe, the USA and Australia. The North Rhine-Westphalia State Stud is always worth a visit, be it for the traditional stallion parades or for the open-air festival, consisting of the "Symphony of the Stallions", the family day and a pop concert. The open day, Warendorf breeder Sundays, stallion performance tests and guided tours in the listed stables always offer an occasion.
Federal Stud Piber
The village of Piber is embedded in the idyllic hilly landscape of western Styria. At the Federal Stud in Piber, four hundred years of knowledge about rearing and the special nature of training Lipizzaners is geared towards breeding horses with those achievements that have made them world-famous through the Spanish Riding School.
After the domain of the St. Lambrecht Abbey was dissolved in 1798, Piber was given a new purpose as a military horse depot. In 1867 the military stud was given to the k.&k. Ministry of Agriculture in Vienna. 1920 After the k.&k. Hofgestüte Lipizza (1915) the remaining Lipizzaners in Austria find their new home. The location decision falls on Piber.
In 1942, during World War II, the Lipizzaners are transferred from Piber to Hostau in Bohemia and they narrowly escape the hands of the Russian arms.
In 1945, the Austrian Lipizzaners were brought from the stables around Schwarzenberg in Bavaria to St. Martin in Upper Austria. The 215 horses found a temporary home in Wimsbach, where they stayed until 1952. When the horses return home from there, a continuous phase of successful development of the stud begins.
In 2001 the Federal Stud Piber was merged with the Spanish Riding School to form a joint company under public law.
A highlight in the history of the Federal Stud is the presentation of the Styrian State Exhibition in 2003 on the subject of "The Myth of the Horse". The associated investments in the entire infrastructure offer ideal conditions today for equestrian and cultural events.
The Federal Stud Piber contributes to preserving an important and living cultural heritage in Austria and to preserving one of the noblest horse breeds in its original form. The best of each year are selected for the Spanish Riding School. The cooperation between the Federal Stud Piber and the Spanish Riding School is based, among other things, on a unique cycle: The best stallions of the Spanish Riding School pass on their positive characteristics - they return to Piber as sires for one breeding season.
The mother mares are the heart of Lipizzaner breeding. They secure the offspring for the Spanish Riding School. The young mares of the mother herd, also called "stud mares", are covered for the first time at the age of 5 years. Each Lipizzaner foal initially wears an almost black coat. In most cases, the well-known mold color of the Lipizzaner only fully develops over the course of six to nine years. Few foals are born with brown coats, these remain brown.
After about a week in the birthing pen, mother and foal move back into the playpen, into the herd, which from now on is the most important area of life in rearing. In addition to the hereditary disposition, these environmental conditions determine at least 50 percent of later physical performance and character. Six months after birth, the foals are separated from their mothers and form a new herd of foals. The following spring, the "yearlings" are separated by sex and integrated into the young stallion or young mare herd. In this way, the young animals mature physically and in character under species-appropriate conditions.
Young Lipizzaners spend the summer in the mountains three times during the growing up phase. And there are several good reasons for that. Because young mares and stallions learn perfect surefootedness and train tendons and joints on the stud farm's own pastures at an altitude of 1600 meters. During their extensive grazing on alpine meadows rich in herbs, the horses are always supervised by their supervisors and taken to the stables in the evening. Constant contact with people is a central element during rearing. In this way, the animal learns to respect the human being as its partner with a higher social rank. This is important and crucial for later training.
At the age of three and a half, the animals are presented for the main inspection, the central event in stud work. All data are recorded in the stud books. According to the traditional breeding goal, the best stallions are to be selected for training and presentation at the Spanish Riding School. The principle of performance testing in a closed herd enables the precise documentation of the lifetime performance of each horse. An unbelievable amount of data on temperament, willingness to perform and character is documented, right from the birth. The documented knowledge is of great benefit in many areas apart from the immediate breeding program. For example, it is valuable know-how in the exchange of experiences with other Lipizzaner breeders and studs.
This knowledge is the basis for the breeding value, the breeding planning and the entire work of the company under public law Spanish Riding School - Federal Stud Piber.
With the stately, baroque palace, the Federal Stud Piber offers an incomparable setting for events and celebrations in a rural, elegant idyll. In addition to the wonderful horses, there are a variety of events, such as the traditional cattle drive from the 1470m high Stubalm, carriage driving tests and much more, which the stud under the direction of Dr. Make Max Dobretsberger a darling of the public worth seeing.
Haras national du Pin
The National Stud of Le Pin is the oldest French State Stud. All stud farms were created by the law of 1665 by Colbert, first minister to Louis XIV. He established a royal stud system administered by the king himself. The goal was the renewal of the horses, the control and selection of the breeding lines and the solution of the problem related to breeding since horses were used in wars (especially the lack of horses).
Le Pin has up to 40 state-owned stallions available during the breeding season. Cob Normand, Percheron, Selle Français, Arabian Thoroughbred, Anglo-Arab, French Trotter, Thoroughbred English and Pony stallions are on offer.
Le Pin is nicknamed the "Versailles of horses". Indeed, in terms of architecture, many features are reminiscent of the Palace of Versailles: the symmetrical layout of the buildings and the street that gives a view through the forest and is called "l'Avenue Louis XIV". Architect Robert de Cotte adopted the same structures used for the stables at Versailles in 1715 (the horseshoe shape). The chateau, the director's house, was built later (1730).
Another nod to Versailles is the gardens, designed by Le Nôtre students. Initially, the land covered 1,112 acres. However, during its history it has been divided: 350 acres are managed by ONF (Forest Management) and 450 acres have been leased to INRA (Research Center for Genetics and Agronomy).
National Stud Bábolna
There are perhaps only a select few stud farms in the world that breed Arabian horses with a loyalty, expertise and tradition stretching back two centuries. The Arabian Stud Farm in Bábolna is one of those extraordinary historical sites in horse breeding culture. The traditional imperial-royal stud Bábolna was founded in 1789, in which from 1816 only Arabian stallions were allowed to be mated. This means that the origin of the Arabian breed is a quarter of a century younger than when the stud farm for English thoroughbreds was founded (1793). In terms of historical importance, 1836 was also an epoch-making year, when the stallion Shagya Senior was used for breeding in Bábolna. While the Bábolna Stud was trying to break new ground in thoroughbred Arabian breeding at the end of the 1960s, the Bábolna Arabian breed - named after the Shagya Arabian breed in 1978 - conquered lovers of Arabian horses not only in Europe but also all over the world.
The name Bábolna-Pussta is mentioned for the first time in a document from 1268. Here the famous "magyar szürkemarha" (Hungarian gray cattle) driven from the Hungarian lowlands to Vienna were sorted out for the last time after a long journey, or a rest was taken before they were driven on to Regensburg or sold to the butchers of Komárom and Gyõr. Even today, the main street in Bábolna reminds us of this: "Mészáros út" (street of the butchers). Later ownership passed to the Szapáry counts. In 1789 the lands were then bought by Emperor Joseph II, at the request of József Csekonics - head of the Mezõhegyes stud - for the purpose of founding a new stud. The courier captain, who felt committed to Hungarian horse breeding and also had good connections, carefully selected the area for founding the military stud farm, which was also the stopping point for military couriers. After the Battle of Gyõr (1809) the Napoleonic troops burned down the estate, which was rebuilt between 1810-1820. In 1836 the world-famous stallion Shagya came to Bábolna from Syria, whose offspring are still highly valued in many countries today.
Among the commanders of Bábolna, the story of Mihály Fadlallah el Hedad is the strangest. His love for horses brought him from faraway Syria to Bábolna in 1857, where he found a new home and later became the head of the stud farm. One of the later commanders of Bábolna, Tibor Pettkó-Szandtner, the founder of modern horse-drawn carriages, was also the head of the royal stud farm in Egypt after the Second World War.
12 foundation stallions and 61 foundation mares form the basis of the Arab stud farm, which consists of a total of 250 horses. The purebred Arabian horses from Egypt are of considerable value in Arabian thoroughbred breeding. The typical features of the Shagya breed are characterized by elegance, harmonious movement, extraordinary good nature and the ability to learn, paired with great performance and ideal proportions. English Thoroughbreds have been bred at the Dióspuszta Stud of the National Stud Bábolna GmbH for almost four decades. With their excellent results, the racehorses from Bábolna have increased the stud farm's notoriety not only in Hungary but also on European racecourses.
The economic changes in 2001 required organizational division of the conventional activities of Bábolna as. Thus, horse breeding and stud farms with the castle complex, which is part of the national cultural heritage, were separated from the competitive branches of poultry farming and the food industry. On August 1st, 2001, the National Stud Bábolna GmbH, which remains 100% state-owned, was founded. Its fundamental task includes the preservation of the castle complex, the stud farm and the stock of horses as well as the continuation of the inheritance that has come down to us since it was founded in 1789.
During the tour of the stud farm with a guide, the following sights will be presented: the carriage, horse museums and the stables of the world-famous Arabian stud farm, the riding hall, the oldest acacia tree in Hungary (planted in 1710), the memorial plaque and busts of the stud commanders, as well as an exhibition about the history of horse breeding. As a supporting program, the stud farm offers demonstrations in five-, four- and pairs. An evening music program in the riding hall: riders with fanfare, carousel, pairs and the stallion demonstration are among the sights at the stud farm. A botanical garden with over 500 different plants, a conference in the theater of the stud farm or a barbecue party in the picturesque surroundings Ölbõ-Pussta are among the special features in Bábolna.
Kladruby nad Labem
Kladruby is the oldest stud farm in the world and the Kladruber, a warmblood horse, is one of the oldest horse breeds, which was declared a national cultural monument in 2002. They have been bred on the basis of old Spanish and old Italian genes for over 425 years without a break in the Czech Republic. This is the only original Czech horse breed, which is why it is also called the Czech breed. In Central Europe, the Altkladruber is the oldest systematically bred cultural horse. At first they were bred in all colors, later only as gray and black horses.
Kladruby nad Labem is located in the Elbe lowlands about 20 kilometers east of Kolín and nine kilometers west of Prelouc. The first written mentions come from the 12th century.
Wilhelm von Pernstejn acquired the Pardubice dominion in 1491 and later also Kladruby. After political and economic changes, the Bohemian estates bought the Pardubice dominion including the Kladrub game reserve and presented it to the Habsburg and Austrian Archduke Maximilian in 1560 in anticipation of his coronation as King of Bohemia. He was later appointed Roman-German Emperor Maximilian II. In 1552 he had horses from Spain and Italy brought first to Vienna and then to Kladruby, on the genetic basis of which today's "Altkladruber horse" breed was created.
In 1579, the son, Emperor Rudolf II, raised the original Kladruber game reserve to the imperial court stud farm and signed the founding list of the stud farm. The stud farm Kladruby nad Labem is one of the oldest stud farms in the world.
Over the years, horse breeding in Kladruby has specialized in Spanish-Neapolitan driving horses for the imperial court. For centuries, Altkladruber horses were in the service of monarchs. Two gray horses and two black eight-in-hand horses had to be available at all times. The gray horses were harnessed for court ceremonial purposes, the black horses were used on church occasions. The counterpart intended for riding purposes was the Lipizzaner, which had been bred in the Lipizza stud farm since 1580.
Until the Kladruby Stud was nationalized in 1918, it was owned by the Habsburgs. During the "Seven Years' War" in 1757 the castle, the church and the entire stud farm burned down. All written documents were lost in the process, proof of descent can only be traced back to 1764. It was not until 1770 that Joseph II gave the order to rebuild the court stud farm in Kladruby. The Josefhof was created, which is still used for broodmares today, and the Franzenshof in 1831/32. The young horses are still reared in these stables today.
Emperor Franz Joseph I and Empress Sissi also paid regular visits to Kladruby. The imperial couple were enthusiastic about horse racing and were present at the opening of this race in 1874.
Since 1918 the stud has been owned by the Czechoslovakian and Czech state. The breeding of Altkladruber horses was less intensive and around 1930 the Altkladruber black horses were threatened with extinction. The regeneration of these horses began in the 1930s, when all old Kladruber black horses from the Czech Republic and Slovakia were first brought to Pruhonice near Prague and in 1945 to the Slatiňany stud farm. Gray horses are still bred in Kladruby and black horses in Slatiňany.
In 1952 a vocational school specializing in horse care and riding was established in Kladruby. Since 1992, the Slatiňany and Kladruby studs have together formed the Kladruby nad Labem National Stud and are subject to the Ministry of Agriculture in Prague.
There are only about 1,100 Altkladrub horses worldwide, so the main task of the Kladruby nad Labem National Stud is the breeding and preservation of the Altkladrub horse breed, for which purpose the horse stock of around 520 Altkladrubs is used. Altkladrubers are used as driving horses in tournament sport up to international level. Because of their good rideability and their majestic demeanour, they are becoming increasingly popular with baroque riders, who take them for lessons up to the high school. Occasionally you can see Altkladrubers at dressage tournaments.
The mounted police of Pardubice, Ostrava etc. use them. The imposing appearing horses with strong nerves are ideal for this task. After a break of more than 70 years (since 1918) they are now used again as carriage horses for the nobility. The stud offers many attractions and opportunities, be it the castle, the museum or the church; historical and modern horse events such as the traditional Hubertus hunt; events of private celebrations such as weddings, etc.; Carriage rides and driving tournaments or guided rides on well-trained, nerve-racking old Kladrub horses offer a special experience.
Janów Podlaski National Stud
Janów Podlaski is the oldest state stud farm in Poland. It was founded in 1817 as a result of the Congress of Vienna on the initiative of the Kingdom of Poland and approved by Tsar Alexander I. The stud farm is located about 2 km from Janów in Vygoda. During the First World War, the stud farm was evacuated to Russia. None of the evacuated horses returned to Poland, so new horses of different breeds came to Janów after Poland regained its independence. Most of the stud buildings had been destroyed by this time, but most of the grazing land was still usable.
The stud farm, with its extensive pastures along the Bug River and beautiful 19th-century stables, is considered a horse paradise. The watch stable "Zegarowa" and the main stable of the stallions "Czolowa" date from 1848 and 1841.
Most of the horses that moved into Janów Podlaski after World War I were Thoroughbred and Anglo-Arabian. They formed the basis for breeding cavalry horses. During the Second World War, the stud farm lost over 80% of its stock. The remaining horses were evacuated to Germany in 1944.
In 1946 the government in Poland was reorganized and the horses returned. Only in 1950 were they finally brought back to Janów Podlaski.
Since then, thoroughbred Arabians and Anglo-Arabians have been bred at the stud. Breeding should also improve the impact of Polish workhorses. Today the use of the horses has changed. They are increasingly used as leisure and sport horses. Every year in summer, the well-known Arabian Horse Days with sales days and breeding shows are held at the stud farm. Most horses are sold to the USA.
EL ZAHRAA EAO
40 years ago she photographed her first Arabian horses at the Egyptian state stud El Zahraa and published a calendar for the Jordanian princess Alia Al Hussein. That was the seed for a passionate photography career, a life with the horses. Since that time she has returned to Cairo time and time again, photographing new generations of promising Arabian horses that are sold all over the world. The Egyptian state stud is the origin
and the never-ending source of many international studs in Europe and America.
From Egypt, the royal families of the Arabian Peninsula bought back the lines of horses that belonged to their ancestors' inheritance 200 years ago. were in Egypt
they were carefully bred, but there were hardly any pure Arabians left in the original Arabian breeding areas. Horses are a reflection of history, fascinating and mysterious, and there is much to be said about the role of the Arabian horse in Islamic and European history.